Drug Utilization Research (DUR) is an eclectic scientific discipline, integrating descriptive and analytical methods for the quantification, understanding and evaluation of the processes of prescribing, dispensing and consumption of medicines and for the testing of interventions to enhance the quality of these processes. The discipline is closely related and linked mainly to the broader field of pharmacoepidemiology, but also to health outcomes research, pharmacovigilance and health economics. Drug Utilization Research is a unique, practical guide to the assessment and evaluation of prescribing practices and to interventions to improve the use of medicines in populations. Edited by an international expert team from the International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology (ISPE), DUR is the only title to cover both the methodology and applications of drug utilization research and covers areas such as health policy, specific populations, therapeutics and adherence.
Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization An in-depth look at the economic and environmental benefits that food companies can achieve—and the challenges and opportunities they may face—by utilizing food processing by-products Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization is the first book dedicated to food processing by-products and their utilization in a broad spectrum. It provides a comprehensive overview on food processing by-products and their utilization as source of novel functional ingredients. It discusses food groups, including cereals, pulses, fruits, vegetables, meat, dairy, marine, sugarcane, winery, and plantation by-products; addresses processing challenges relevant to food by-products; and delivers insight into the current state of art and emerging technologies to extract valuable phytochemicals from food processing by-products. Food Processing By-Products and their Utilization offers in-depth chapter coverage of fruit processing by-products; the application of food by-products in medical and pharmaceutical industries; prebiotics and dietary fibers from food processing by-products; bioactive compounds and their health effects from honey processing industries; advances in milk fractionation for value addition; seafood by-products in applications of biomedicine and cosmeticuals; food industry by-products as nutrient replacements in aquaculture diets and agricultural crops; regulatory and legislative issues for food waste utilization; and much more. The first reference text to bring together essential information on the processing technology and incorporation of by-products into various food applications Concentrates on the challenges and opportunities for utilizing by-products, including many novel and potential uses for the by-products and waste materials generated by food processing Focuses on the nutritional composition and biochemistry of by-products, which are key to establishing their functional health benefits as foods Part of the «IFST Advances in Food Science» series, co-published with the Institute of Food Science and Technology (UK) This bookserves as a comprehensive reference for students, educators, researchers, food processors, and industry personnel looking for up-to-date insight into the field. Additionally, the covered range of techniques for by-product utilization will provide engineers and scientists working in the food industry with a valuable resource for their work.
This study addresses the question how income affects health care utilization by the population aged 50 and over in the United States and a number of European countries with varying health care systems. The probabilities that individuals receive several medical services (visits to general practitioner, specialist, dentist, inpatient, or outpatient services) are analyzed separately using probit models. In addition to controls for income and demographic characteristics, controls for health status (both subjective and objective measures of health) are used. We analyze how the relationship between income and health care utilization varies across countries and relate these cross country differences to characteristics of the health care system, i. e., per capita total and public expenditure on health care, gate-keeping for specialist care, and copayments.
Provides the tools needed to analyze and solve acid drainage problems Featuring contributions from leading experts in science and engineering, this book explores the complex biogeochemistry of acid mine drainage, rock drainage, and acid sulfate soils. It describes how to predict, prevent, and remediate the environmental impact of acid drainage and the oxidation of sulfides, offering the latest sampling and analytical methods. Moreover, readers will discover new approaches for recovering valuable resources from acid mine drainage, including bioleaching. Acid Mine Drainage, Rock Drainage, and Acid Sulfate Soils reviews the most current findings in the field, offering new insights into the underlying causes as well as new tools to minimize the harm of acid drainage: Part I: Causes of Acid Mine Drainage, Rock Drainage and Sulfate Soils focuses on the biogeochemistry of acid drainage in different environments. Part II: Assessment of Acid Mine Drainage, Rock Drainage and Sulfate Soils covers stream characterization, aquatic and biological sampling, evaluation of aquatic resources, and some unusual aspects of sulfide oxidation. Part III: Prediction and Prevention of Acid Drainage discusses acid-base accounting, kinetic testing, block modeling, petrology, and mineralogy studies. It also explains relevant policy and regulations. Part IV: Remediation of Acid Drainage, Rock Drainage and Sulfate Soils examines both passive and active cleanup methods to remediate acid drainage. Case studies from a variety of geologic settings highlight various approaches to analyzing and solving acid drainage problems. Replete with helpful appendices and an extensive list of web resources, Acid Mine Drainage, Rock Drainage, and Acid Sulfate Soils is recommended for mining engineers and scientists, regulatory officials, environmental scientists, land developers, and students.
The story involves a mine that uncovers a very deep chasm, too deep for any sounding lines to hit bottom. The night after the discovery of the abyss the narrator and one of the mine's workers, Juan Romero, venture inside the mine, drawn against their will by a mysterious rhythmical throbbing in the ground.
The potential use of hydrogen as a clean and renewable fuel resource has generated significant attention in recent years, especially given the rapidly increasing demand for energy sources and the dwindling availability of fossil fuels. Hydrogen is an “ideal fuel” in several ways. Its only byproduct of consumption is water; it is the most abundant element in the universe; and it is available at low cost. Hydrogen generation is possible via a number of possible chemical processes, to separate the hydrogen from its bond with atoms such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. In this book, the authors provide the scientific foundations for established and innovative methods of hydrogen extraction; outline solutions for its storage; and illustrate its applications in the fields of petroleum, chemical, metallurgical, physics, and manufacturing. Addresses the three fundamental aspects of hydrogen as a fuel resource: generation, storage, and utilization Provides theoretical basis for the chemical processes required for hydrogen generation, including solar, photoelectrochemical, thermochemical, and fermentation methods Discusses storage of hydrogen based on metal hydrides, hydrocarbons, high pressure compression, and cryogenics Examines the applications of hydrogen utilization in the fields of petroleum, chemical, metallurgical, physics, and manufacturing Contains over 90 figures, including 27 color figures
Fly High is a motivating four-level course for young learners that integrates reading, grammar, writing, listening, and speaking skills in a fun and engaging way. Language is presented in humorous cartoon stories and follows the adventures of the Fly High characters. Рекомендуем!
Presenting boundary conditions for the economic and environmental utilization of geothermal technology, this is the first book to provide basic knowledge on the topic in such detail. The editor is the coordinator of the European Geothermic Research Initiative, while the authors are experts for the various geological situations in Europe with high temperature reservoirs in shallow and deep horizons. With its perspectives for R&D in geothermic technology concluding each chapter, this ready reference will be of great value to scientists and decision-makers in research and politics, as well as those giving courses in petroleum engineering, for example.
Scrutinizing various fillers, such as fly ash, inorganic nanoparticles, Kevlar and wood flour, this book exemplifies how the choice of filler influences the micro- and macroscopic behavior of the resulting polymer composites, such as friction, wear and impact resistance. In so doing, the text brings together a number of composite systems using different polymer matrices, different filler systems as well as different processing conditions, thereby serving as a beneficial guide for readers so as to select a particular set of processing conditions or composite constituents for the enhancement of certain properties.
Mining activities significantly impact the environment; they generate huge quantities of spoil, promote deforestation and the loss of agricultural production, as well as releasing contaminants that result in the loss of valuable soil resources. These negative impacts are now being recognized and this book shows how corrective action can be taken. The introduction of sustainable mining requires mitigation strategies that start during the mine planning stage and extend to after mineral extraction has ceased, and post-closure activities are being executed. Reclamation of Mine-impacted Land for Ecosystem Recovery covers: methods of rejuvenation of mine wasteland including different practices of physical, chemical and ecological engineering methods; benefits of rejuvenation: stabilization of land surfaces; pollution control; aesthetic improvement; general amenity; plant productivity; and carbon sequestration as well as restoring biodiversity and ecosystem function; best management practices and feasible solutions to the impacts of mining which will reduce the pollution load by reducing the discharge rate and the pollutant concentration; reduce erosion and sedimentation problems, and result in improved abandoned mine lands; and ecosystem development. The authors explain how mining impacts on soil properties and how soil carbon reserves/soil fertility can be restored when mining has ceased. Restoration involves a coordinated approach that recognizes the importance of key soil properties to enable re-vegetation to take place rapidly and ecosystems to be established in a low cost and sustainable way. This book’s unique combination of the methods for reclamation technologies with policies and best practice worldwide will provide the background and the guidance needed by scientists, researchers and engineers engaged in land reclamation, as well as by industry managers.
The paper exploits panel data finite mixture (latent class) models to measure consumer equity in healthcare access and utilization. The finite mixture approach accounts for unobservable consumer heterogeneity, while generalized linear models address a retransformation problem of logged dependent variable. Using the data of the Japan Household Panel Survey (2009–2014), we discover that consumers separate into latent classes in the binary choice models for healthcare use and generalized linear models for outpatient/inpatient healthcare expenditure. The results reveal that healthcare access in Japan is pro-poor for the most sick consumers, while utilization of outpatient care is equitable with respect to disposable income.
The expansion of carbon materials is multidisciplinary and is related to physics, chemistry, biology, applied sciences and engineering. The research on carbon materials has mostly focused on aspects of fundamental physics as they unique electrical, thermal and mechanical properties applicable for the range of applications. The electrons in graphene and other derived carbon materials behave as dirac fermions due to their interaction with the ions of the lattice. This direction has led to the discovery of new phenomena such as Klein tunneling in carbon based solid state systems and the so-called half-integer quantum Hall effect. Advanced Carbon Materials and Technology presents cutting-edge chapters on the processing, properties and technological developments of graphene, carbon nanotubes, carbon fibers, carbon particles and other carbon based structures including multifunctional graphene sheets, graphene quantum dots, bulky balls, carbon balls, and their polymer composites. This book brings together respected international scholars writing on the innovative methodologies and strategies adopted in carbon materials research area including Synthesis, characterization and functionalization of carbon nanotubes and graphene Surface modification of graphene Carbon based nanostructured materials Graphene and carbon nanotube based electrochemical (bio)sensors for environmental monitoring Carbon catalysts for hydrogen storage materials Optical carbon nanoobjects Graphene and carbon nanotube based biosensors Carbon doped cryogel films Bioimpact of carbon nanomaterials Photocatalytic nature of carbon nanotube based composites Engineering behavior of ash fills Fly ash syntactic foams microstructure