Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. The aromatic bond is a three-electron bond in flat cyclic systems with a specific interaction of electrons through the cycle. In benzene formed a new type of chemical bonds – an aromatic bond, which has a multiplicity of more than 1.5 (1.66) http://vixra.org/author/bezverkhniy_volodymyr_dmytrovych
Strategize, plan, and execute comprehensive drug-drug interaction assessments for therapeutic biologics Offering both theory and practical guidance, this book fully explores drug-drug interaction assessments for therapeutic biologics during the drug development process. It draws together and analyzes all the latest findings and practices in order to present our current understanding of the topic and point the way to new research. Case studies and examples, coupled with expert advice, enable readers to better understand the complex mechanisms of biologic drug-drug interactions. Drug-Drug Interactions for Therapeutic Biologics features contributions from leading international experts in all areas of therapeutic biologics drug development and drug-drug interactions. The authors' contributions reflect a thorough review and analysis of the literature as well as their own firsthand laboratory experience. Coverage includes such essential topics as: Drug-drug interaction risks in combination with small molecules and other biologics Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions In vitro methods for drug-drug interaction assessment and prediction Risk-based strategies for evaluating biologic drug-drug interactions Strategies to minimize drug-drug interaction risk and mitigate toxic interactions Key regulations governing drug-drug interaction assessments for therapeutic biologics. Drug-Drug Interactions for Therapeutic Biologics is recommended for pharmaceutical and biotechnology scientists, clinical pharmacologists, medicinal chemists, and toxicologists. By enabling these readers to understand how therapeutic biologics may interact with other drugs, the book will help them develop safer, more effective therapeutic biologics.
Quantum Monte Carlo is a large class of computer algorithms that simulate quantum systems to solve many body systems in order to investigate the electronic structure of many-body systems. This book presents a numeric approach to determine the electronic structure of atoms, molecules and solids. Because of the simplicity of its theoretical concept, the authors focus on the variational Quantum-Monte-Carlo (VQMC) scheme. The reader is enabled to proceed from simple examples as the hydrogen atom to advanced ones as the Lithium solid. Several intermediate steps cover the Hydrogen molecule, how to deal with a two electron systems, going over to three electrons, and expanding to an arbitrary number of electrons to finally treat the three-dimensional periodic array of Lithium atoms in a crystal. The exmples in the field of VQMC are followed by the subject of diffusion Monte-Calro (DMC) which covers a common example, the harmonic ascillator. The book is unique as it provides both theory and numerical programs. It includes rather practical advices to do what is usually described in a theoretical textbook, and presents in more detail the physical understanding of what the manual of a code usually promises as result. Detailed derivations can be found at the appendix, and the references are chosen with respect to their use for specifying details or getting an deeper understanding . The authors address an introductory readership in condensed matter physics, computational phyiscs, chemistry and materials science. As the text is intended to open the reader's view towards various possibilities of choices of computing schemes connected with the method of QMC, it might also become a welcome literature for researchers who would like to know more about QMC methods. The book is accompanied with a collection of programs, routines, and data. To download the codes, please follow http://www.wiley-vch.de/books/sample/3527408517_codes.tar.gz
Explores the role of oral interaction for second language learning from cognitive, social, pedagogical and linguistic perspectives, with a focus on research relevant to English language learners aged 5-18 in a variety of classroom contexts.
Many small molecules occur naturally as «messenger» chemicals which regulate the behaviour and functions of microbes, plants, insects and animals. Examples include hormones, pheromones, phytoalexins, and antifeedants. These biofunctional molecules are of great interest to researchers in helping develop our understanding of biological function and in the development of new drugs. However extracting them from nature can be prohibitively expensive, so there is great interest in devising methods of synthesising them from simple starting materials in the laboratory. Chemical Synthesis of Hormones, Pheromones and Other Bioregulators is an introduction to the techniques and strategies for the synthesis of biofunctional small molecules. Topics include: what are biofunctional molecules? why must biofunctional molecules be synthesized? how can we synthesize biofunctional molecules? the synthesis of phytohormones, phytoalexins and other biofunctional molecules of plant origin the synthesis of insect juvenile hormones and antifeedants the synthesis of pheromones and the significance of chirality in pheromone science the synthesis of microbial hormones and pheromones, antibiotics, and other biofunctional molecules of microbial origin the synthesis of marine antifeedants and medicinal candidates a synthetic examination of incorrectly proposed structures of biomolecules reflections on science as a human endeavor Drawing on a career of almost 50 years researching and teaching this subject, Kenji Mori's Chemical Synthesis of Hormones, Pheromones and Other Bioregulators is a must-have textbook for students and researchers of organic synthesis and natural products, and a stimulating and inspiring account of a distinguished chemical career.
These notes are a result of a series of lectures given to the MS and PhD students of the Department of Physics, Moscow State Pedagogical University. They deal with the subject of electron-phonon interaction in pure threedimensional metals. The goal was to show how one could calculate the temperature dependence of the electron-phonon-interaction time from first principles within a simple model. Students wishing to expand their knowledge of the subject of condensed matter are invited to study any book on solid-state physics (for example by J.M. Ziman, or N.W. Ashcroft and N.D. Mermin.